Grape Breeding 101-Lon J. Rombough

cewh Published the article • 0 comments • 179 views • 2016-09-25 19:48 • 来自相关话题

In trying for the “perfect” wine there are many factors to deal with. The culture of the vine can only be adjusted so much — soil, pruning, training and microclimate all have their limits. The part you can most control is your choice of grape variety. There are enough varieties in the world that most winemakers find at least one that works well enough to suit them, but for others no grape is “just right.”   

The solution? Breed your own grapes. Grape breeding doesn’t take a college degree or special equipment, and while there is no absolute guarantee you will create a wine grape perfect for your climate, odds are good the result will be worthwhile. Add the fact that it will be your own creation, and breeding can be immensely satisfying.

Grape Biology Basics

First, it helps to know a little bit about grape biology. Grapes bloom differently than other flowers. Grape petals are green, and instead of blooming they detach at the bottom, coming off the flower as a cap. Because of their appearance, the unopened buds are often mistaken for small green grapes.  All wild grape species are dioecious — each vine has either male or female flowers. The male flowers have fully developed anthers (the pollen-bearing organs), but little or no ovary or pistil. Female flowers have a large, well-developed ovary and pistil, and while the anthers are nearly as large as those of the males, they are reflexed under the flower (they curve down and under) and any pollen they produce is sterile. Pollination is  by wind and insects, such as small flies.

Most cultivated grapes have “perfect flowers,” with a normal ovary and pistil and fully developed, upright anthers. (In other words, they are both male and female.) This means that cultivated grapes are mostly able to set fruit by self-fertilization, with a few exceptions. Some older varieties have female flowers, but had such good qualities that they were not discarded when perfect-flowered types came along, and must be planted near perfect-flowered types to set a crop.

Each flower in a cluster of a perfect-flowered or a female-flowered variety can “set” and become a single grape. However, in most varieties only 20 percent of the flowers set, at most. Any more than that and the grapes are packed so tightly on the mature cluster that they crush and split each other. In well-filled clusters, 10 to 15 percent of the flowers become berries. It’s worth nothing that here are varieties that appear to be perfect-flowered but have weak pollen. These varieties don’t set good crops unless a second variety is planted near them. There are also female-flowered types that can set full clusters of small seedless berries if they are not pollinated by another.

None of the common commercial varieties has these traits, but they do show up often enough to be worth noting. Just about all the grapes you are apt to buy in nurseries are perfect flowered and will self-fertilize — be both the “mother” and “father.” The most important aspect of breeding grapes is controlled pollination — making sure you know what the parents of your seedlings are.

The method used by commercial and university breeders is to emasculate the flowers, which involves removing the cap with  fine tweezers in a way that pulls off the anthers without harming the ovary or pistil. It’s not especially hard to learn, but it can be tedious and time-consuming. Instead, here are simpler methods that, while not always as exact, will still give a beginner a good chance of success. 

Growing seedlings

If you’ve found a grape that mostly suits you, it may be  worthwhile to grow seedlings of it. Even though most commercial grapes are self-pollinating, grapes have a lot of variation in their genes. Plant a hundred seeds and none of the seedlings will be exactly like the original variety. This means that a seedling of that “almost perfect” grape could inherit a combination of genes that corrects the problem you have with it. For example, if a grape is late-ripening for you, odds are good that some of its seedlings will ripen earlier.

This method only works if a trait is present in the grape to start with. If you plant seed of a grape that is white, odds are good all the seedlings will have white fruit, unless pollen of a red grape somehow reached a flower. If a variety has no resistance to mildew, the seedlings are unlikely to have any either. However, if a grape has some resistance to mildew, it’s possible that a seedling could inherit a new combination of genes and wind up with greater resistance.

Also, for many traits it’s possible that there may be hidden “recessive” genes that will surprise you. For instance, Cabernet is a blue grape, but it can produce seedlings with white fruit because it has recessive genes for that fruit color.

Remember that more than a few traits are reshuffled in the seedlings — dozens are recombined in any one offspring. This means  an improvement in one trait might be offset by a weakness in another. To beat the odds, it is usually necessary to grow a lot of seedlings to find one that has all the traits you want. There is no set number, but 100 seedlings is a good baseline. With that many, you may or may not find what you want, but you will almost surely find enough to help decide if it’s worth growing more seedlings. If nothing in the 100 comes even close, odds are that you won’t find what you want in a larger group. The easiest thing about this method is that seed can be collected from the bottom of the fermentation tank during winemaking — seed isn’t harmed by fermentation — so getting a quantity of seed to work with is simple. (I’ll explain how to grow seeds shortly.)

Let’s walk through what you can expect with this and other breeding methods. Pick any nice ripe cluster of grapes (or collect seed as above) and remove the seeds from the fruit. Let’s say we’re working with Marechal Foch. First, grow the seedlings out. Now let’s start eliminating some. Twenty-five of the 100 seedlings (for example) get powdery mildew, when Foch itself does not. Remove those. Of the remaining 75, 10 get more black rot than Foch. Out. Of the remaining 65, five are runts or slow-growing. Out. By the time you have taken out all the poor-growing, diseased types, you are probably down to 50 or less of the original 100. Train them up to have one good cane. End of first year.

With good care, many can start to bear the second year. It’s possible that 20 or more will have female flowers. You might keep those for further breeding, but they are out as varieties since they would have to be pollinated by a second variety to bear fruit. Down to 30. When the first crop ripens, you will probably eliminate some as ripening at the wrong time — too late (or less likely) too early. Eliminate 10-15. Some may be removed for problems like fruit rot. Now you are down to about 15 or less from your original 100. If there is at least 5 pounds of fruit, you can make a sample batch of wine. That will eliminate more of the seedlings for poor quality. If not enough fruit, try again the next year.

By the time all seedlings have borne fruit you have eliminated just about everything, and if all went well, you will have about one seedling of the original 100 that either has everything you want, or is close enough to it to show that you could grow a larger number of seedlings — say 300 — and probably find just what you wanted. You have spent anywhere from five to ten years to get to this stage, though you might find a good seedling within three years under ideal conditions. Even at that, it would be wise to make wine from your “find” for at least three years to be sure it will be consistent. 

Crossing grape varieties

When a variety lacks a trait altogether, it’s necessary to cross it with another that has what you want and hope everything will recombine the right way in a seedling. Crossing two varieties takes a bit more work than just growing seeds from one grape, but there are easy “shortcut” methods. First, choose the parents. Pick varieties that either reinforce each other  in desirable traits, or complement each other for strengths and weaknesses. Avoid crossing parents that reinforce each other negatively — both  are susceptible to the same disease, for instance. If yours is a disease-ridden climate, having both parents resistant to disease helps ensure healthy offspring. One resistant and one susceptible parent are more likely to yield an intermediate offspring than a fully resistant one, though a trait can be fully dominant. As a case in point,  crossing a very cold-hardy grape with a relatively tender grape can still give offspring with  good cold hardiness. Legendary breeder Elmer Swenson, for example, crossed Minnesota #78 with S. 11803. While #78 is hardy to more than -40° F,  S. 11803 is as tender as pure vinifera. Yet, the result, Swenson Red, is hardy to -30° F.

If you want an  idea beforehand of what you will get, the inheritance of most of the important traits of grapes has been worked out and can be researched, but  you’ll get results even if you don’t know exactly what to expect. A “quick and dirty” way to make crosses is to have the parents growing  side-by-side, in the ground or in pots. They should bloom at the same time to try this.

Train canes from each vine so they can be intertwined. When the shoots bearing flower clusters come out, tie them together so the clusters  are together. This will ensure that a large proportion of the flowers will get pollen from the other variety. If you want to be sure the two are crossing, look for a trait in one that can act as a marker — red  tendrils, unusual leaf shape — that the other variety lacks. Then when  you grow the seed of the other variety, any seedlings that have the trait can be assumed to have inherited it from the “marker” variety. You can grow the seed from both clusters, since either could have gotten pollen from the other.

A simple method used by many grape breeders is to use female flowered varieties as the female parent. Females are much easier to use in breeding and breeders often save good ones for that purpose. For instance, the aforementioned MN #78 has female flowers. With such vines, all you need do is bag the flower clusters with a bag before they bloom (see illustration). At the same time, put bags on clusters of the variety you want to use as the male parent, before the flowers bloom. Bag at least twice as many clusters of the variety to be used for pollen as the variety with female flowers. Peek in the bags daily in the morning, and when the female flower cluster is in bloom (at least 50 percent of the flowers are open), find a cluster in full bloom from the male variety. Snip the “male” cluster and drop it into the bag on the female cluster. Shake the bag gently. This will get pollen on most of the open female flowers and they will be fertilized and set seed. For insurance, give the bag a shake every morning for about three days to pollinate any late-blooming flowers on the female cluster. Don’t worry if a lot of the flowers don’t set — on most grapes only 10 to 20 percent will set, at best.  
    
Growing grape seed

Seed is mature enough to grow when the berries turn color. Cut the berries in half and remove the seeds. Put them in water; any that float are hollow and won’t  grow. Mix the fresh seed with a tablespoon of moist peat per 100 seeds, then place the mixture in a Ziploc bag and store it in the refrigerator. It should be cold, but not freezing. This is called “stratification” and it induces dormancy. Three months at 32 to 45° F is enough to stratify grape seed. The seed will stay dormant if you need to hold it longer, even until the next year.

Seed can be planted in two-inch square pots (one per pot) or in flats, in a greenhouse or cold frame. At temperatures of 75° F by day and 65° F at night, seed will start to emerge in two to four weeks. Once germination starts, seedlings will come up in as little as a week, though it can take as long as a month. Anywhere from 30 to 90 percent will germinate. Seeds that don’t germinate the first time can be put back in the refrigerator and more will grow after a second treatment. Some of the seedlings from these double-stratified seeds can be unusually strong and vigorous. The American species Vitis riparia and V. rupestris, and varieties that contain them (many of the French hybrids), give a faster germination rate and a larger percentage of seedlings the first time than labrusca, vinifera and  similar species.

Set out the seedlings after they have at least six true leaves and all danger of frost has passed. They can be planted six inches apart in a nursery row the first year, then moved to a test row the next year while still dormant, or planted directly in a test row at two to three  feet apart. (A test row is trellised similar to a regular one, but has only one wire.) Starting seedlings in a nursery allows you to eliminate obvious poor ones before putting them in the test row, but transplanting means more time before they come into bearing. Planting directly in a test row means you can bring the seedlings into bearing sooner, but takes more space and requires extra care.

Train seedlings to one good, short cane on the wire. At two- to three-foot spacing, you won’t have room for much more anyway. Don’t coddle the seedlings — if  one is weak-growing or gets diseased, take it out. However, don’t judge everything the first year it bears. A vine that has a small crop the first year may improve.

Once the vine has at least five pounds of crop, you will need to make a wine sample from each seedling. Five pounds is enough to make a “tenth” (4/5 pint) for a wine test. A good rating system is 0 to 10, with 0 meaning wine that has a flaw due to  a winemaking error and 10 equaling the best. A 5 is equal to a standard  commercial wine. Test three years in  a row to be certain. A 5 or better all three years and the seedling is worth propagating for large-scale tests.

The slowest part of wine-grape breeding is testing your new creation. Ten years of winemaking with a new grape is just barely enough to be sure it’s quality is consistent and it grows well in different conditions. You might not get rich on your new variety, but you’ll find it a fulfilling experience. 

Lon J. Rombough lives in Oregon and learned grape breeding and winemaking at the University of California at Davis. He has been collecting, growing and breeding grapes for 40 years (he started young). He has written a book on grape growing based on his experiences and sells cuttings from his 200+ variety collection.  His Web site is http://www.bunchgrapes.com. 查看全部
In trying for the “perfect” wine there are many factors to deal with. The culture of the vine can only be adjusted so much — soil, pruning, training and microclimate all have their limits. The part you can most control is your choice of grape variety. There are enough varieties in the world that most winemakers find at least one that works well enough to suit them, but for others no grape is “just right.”   

The solution? Breed your own grapes. Grape breeding doesn’t take a college degree or special equipment, and while there is no absolute guarantee you will create a wine grape perfect for your climate, odds are good the result will be worthwhile. Add the fact that it will be your own creation, and breeding can be immensely satisfying.

Grape Biology Basics

First, it helps to know a little bit about grape biology. Grapes bloom differently than other flowers. Grape petals are green, and instead of blooming they detach at the bottom, coming off the flower as a cap. Because of their appearance, the unopened buds are often mistaken for small green grapes.  All wild grape species are dioecious — each vine has either male or female flowers. The male flowers have fully developed anthers (the pollen-bearing organs), but little or no ovary or pistil. Female flowers have a large, well-developed ovary and pistil, and while the anthers are nearly as large as those of the males, they are reflexed under the flower (they curve down and under) and any pollen they produce is sterile. Pollination is  by wind and insects, such as small flies.

Most cultivated grapes have “perfect flowers,” with a normal ovary and pistil and fully developed, upright anthers. (In other words, they are both male and female.) This means that cultivated grapes are mostly able to set fruit by self-fertilization, with a few exceptions. Some older varieties have female flowers, but had such good qualities that they were not discarded when perfect-flowered types came along, and must be planted near perfect-flowered types to set a crop.

Each flower in a cluster of a perfect-flowered or a female-flowered variety can “set” and become a single grape. However, in most varieties only 20 percent of the flowers set, at most. Any more than that and the grapes are packed so tightly on the mature cluster that they crush and split each other. In well-filled clusters, 10 to 15 percent of the flowers become berries. It’s worth nothing that here are varieties that appear to be perfect-flowered but have weak pollen. These varieties don’t set good crops unless a second variety is planted near them. There are also female-flowered types that can set full clusters of small seedless berries if they are not pollinated by another.

None of the common commercial varieties has these traits, but they do show up often enough to be worth noting. Just about all the grapes you are apt to buy in nurseries are perfect flowered and will self-fertilize — be both the “mother” and “father.” The most important aspect of breeding grapes is controlled pollination — making sure you know what the parents of your seedlings are.

The method used by commercial and university breeders is to emasculate the flowers, which involves removing the cap with  fine tweezers in a way that pulls off the anthers without harming the ovary or pistil. It’s not especially hard to learn, but it can be tedious and time-consuming. Instead, here are simpler methods that, while not always as exact, will still give a beginner a good chance of success. 

Growing seedlings

If you’ve found a grape that mostly suits you, it may be  worthwhile to grow seedlings of it. Even though most commercial grapes are self-pollinating, grapes have a lot of variation in their genes. Plant a hundred seeds and none of the seedlings will be exactly like the original variety. This means that a seedling of that “almost perfect” grape could inherit a combination of genes that corrects the problem you have with it. For example, if a grape is late-ripening for you, odds are good that some of its seedlings will ripen earlier.

This method only works if a trait is present in the grape to start with. If you plant seed of a grape that is white, odds are good all the seedlings will have white fruit, unless pollen of a red grape somehow reached a flower. If a variety has no resistance to mildew, the seedlings are unlikely to have any either. However, if a grape has some resistance to mildew, it’s possible that a seedling could inherit a new combination of genes and wind up with greater resistance.

Also, for many traits it’s possible that there may be hidden “recessive” genes that will surprise you. For instance, Cabernet is a blue grape, but it can produce seedlings with white fruit because it has recessive genes for that fruit color.

Remember that more than a few traits are reshuffled in the seedlings — dozens are recombined in any one offspring. This means  an improvement in one trait might be offset by a weakness in another. To beat the odds, it is usually necessary to grow a lot of seedlings to find one that has all the traits you want. There is no set number, but 100 seedlings is a good baseline. With that many, you may or may not find what you want, but you will almost surely find enough to help decide if it’s worth growing more seedlings. If nothing in the 100 comes even close, odds are that you won’t find what you want in a larger group. The easiest thing about this method is that seed can be collected from the bottom of the fermentation tank during winemaking — seed isn’t harmed by fermentation — so getting a quantity of seed to work with is simple. (I’ll explain how to grow seeds shortly.)

Let’s walk through what you can expect with this and other breeding methods. Pick any nice ripe cluster of grapes (or collect seed as above) and remove the seeds from the fruit. Let’s say we’re working with Marechal Foch. First, grow the seedlings out. Now let’s start eliminating some. Twenty-five of the 100 seedlings (for example) get powdery mildew, when Foch itself does not. Remove those. Of the remaining 75, 10 get more black rot than Foch. Out. Of the remaining 65, five are runts or slow-growing. Out. By the time you have taken out all the poor-growing, diseased types, you are probably down to 50 or less of the original 100. Train them up to have one good cane. End of first year.

With good care, many can start to bear the second year. It’s possible that 20 or more will have female flowers. You might keep those for further breeding, but they are out as varieties since they would have to be pollinated by a second variety to bear fruit. Down to 30. When the first crop ripens, you will probably eliminate some as ripening at the wrong time — too late (or less likely) too early. Eliminate 10-15. Some may be removed for problems like fruit rot. Now you are down to about 15 or less from your original 100. If there is at least 5 pounds of fruit, you can make a sample batch of wine. That will eliminate more of the seedlings for poor quality. If not enough fruit, try again the next year.

By the time all seedlings have borne fruit you have eliminated just about everything, and if all went well, you will have about one seedling of the original 100 that either has everything you want, or is close enough to it to show that you could grow a larger number of seedlings — say 300 — and probably find just what you wanted. You have spent anywhere from five to ten years to get to this stage, though you might find a good seedling within three years under ideal conditions. Even at that, it would be wise to make wine from your “find” for at least three years to be sure it will be consistent. 

Crossing grape varieties

When a variety lacks a trait altogether, it’s necessary to cross it with another that has what you want and hope everything will recombine the right way in a seedling. Crossing two varieties takes a bit more work than just growing seeds from one grape, but there are easy “shortcut” methods. First, choose the parents. Pick varieties that either reinforce each other  in desirable traits, or complement each other for strengths and weaknesses. Avoid crossing parents that reinforce each other negatively — both  are susceptible to the same disease, for instance. If yours is a disease-ridden climate, having both parents resistant to disease helps ensure healthy offspring. One resistant and one susceptible parent are more likely to yield an intermediate offspring than a fully resistant one, though a trait can be fully dominant. As a case in point,  crossing a very cold-hardy grape with a relatively tender grape can still give offspring with  good cold hardiness. Legendary breeder Elmer Swenson, for example, crossed Minnesota #78 with S. 11803. While #78 is hardy to more than -40° F,  S. 11803 is as tender as pure vinifera. Yet, the result, Swenson Red, is hardy to -30° F.

If you want an  idea beforehand of what you will get, the inheritance of most of the important traits of grapes has been worked out and can be researched, but  you’ll get results even if you don’t know exactly what to expect. A “quick and dirty” way to make crosses is to have the parents growing  side-by-side, in the ground or in pots. They should bloom at the same time to try this.

Train canes from each vine so they can be intertwined. When the shoots bearing flower clusters come out, tie them together so the clusters  are together. This will ensure that a large proportion of the flowers will get pollen from the other variety. If you want to be sure the two are crossing, look for a trait in one that can act as a marker — red  tendrils, unusual leaf shape — that the other variety lacks. Then when  you grow the seed of the other variety, any seedlings that have the trait can be assumed to have inherited it from the “marker” variety. You can grow the seed from both clusters, since either could have gotten pollen from the other.

A simple method used by many grape breeders is to use female flowered varieties as the female parent. Females are much easier to use in breeding and breeders often save good ones for that purpose. For instance, the aforementioned MN #78 has female flowers. With such vines, all you need do is bag the flower clusters with a bag before they bloom (see illustration). At the same time, put bags on clusters of the variety you want to use as the male parent, before the flowers bloom. Bag at least twice as many clusters of the variety to be used for pollen as the variety with female flowers. Peek in the bags daily in the morning, and when the female flower cluster is in bloom (at least 50 percent of the flowers are open), find a cluster in full bloom from the male variety. Snip the “male” cluster and drop it into the bag on the female cluster. Shake the bag gently. This will get pollen on most of the open female flowers and they will be fertilized and set seed. For insurance, give the bag a shake every morning for about three days to pollinate any late-blooming flowers on the female cluster. Don’t worry if a lot of the flowers don’t set — on most grapes only 10 to 20 percent will set, at best.  
    
Growing grape seed

Seed is mature enough to grow when the berries turn color. Cut the berries in half and remove the seeds. Put them in water; any that float are hollow and won’t  grow. Mix the fresh seed with a tablespoon of moist peat per 100 seeds, then place the mixture in a Ziploc bag and store it in the refrigerator. It should be cold, but not freezing. This is called “stratification” and it induces dormancy. Three months at 32 to 45° F is enough to stratify grape seed. The seed will stay dormant if you need to hold it longer, even until the next year.

Seed can be planted in two-inch square pots (one per pot) or in flats, in a greenhouse or cold frame. At temperatures of 75° F by day and 65° F at night, seed will start to emerge in two to four weeks. Once germination starts, seedlings will come up in as little as a week, though it can take as long as a month. Anywhere from 30 to 90 percent will germinate. Seeds that don’t germinate the first time can be put back in the refrigerator and more will grow after a second treatment. Some of the seedlings from these double-stratified seeds can be unusually strong and vigorous. The American species Vitis riparia and V. rupestris, and varieties that contain them (many of the French hybrids), give a faster germination rate and a larger percentage of seedlings the first time than labrusca, vinifera and  similar species.

Set out the seedlings after they have at least six true leaves and all danger of frost has passed. They can be planted six inches apart in a nursery row the first year, then moved to a test row the next year while still dormant, or planted directly in a test row at two to three  feet apart. (A test row is trellised similar to a regular one, but has only one wire.) Starting seedlings in a nursery allows you to eliminate obvious poor ones before putting them in the test row, but transplanting means more time before they come into bearing. Planting directly in a test row means you can bring the seedlings into bearing sooner, but takes more space and requires extra care.

Train seedlings to one good, short cane on the wire. At two- to three-foot spacing, you won’t have room for much more anyway. Don’t coddle the seedlings — if  one is weak-growing or gets diseased, take it out. However, don’t judge everything the first year it bears. A vine that has a small crop the first year may improve.

Once the vine has at least five pounds of crop, you will need to make a wine sample from each seedling. Five pounds is enough to make a “tenth” (4/5 pint) for a wine test. A good rating system is 0 to 10, with 0 meaning wine that has a flaw due to  a winemaking error and 10 equaling the best. A 5 is equal to a standard  commercial wine. Test three years in  a row to be certain. A 5 or better all three years and the seedling is worth propagating for large-scale tests.

The slowest part of wine-grape breeding is testing your new creation. Ten years of winemaking with a new grape is just barely enough to be sure it’s quality is consistent and it grows well in different conditions. You might not get rich on your new variety, but you’ll find it a fulfilling experience. 

Lon J. Rombough lives in Oregon and learned grape breeding and winemaking at the University of California at Davis. He has been collecting, growing and breeding grapes for 40 years (he started young). He has written a book on grape growing based on his experiences and sells cuttings from his 200+ variety collection.  His Web site is http://www.bunchgrapes.com.

Annual Cycle of the Grapevine

cewh Published the article • 0 comments • 217 views • 2016-06-13 05:02 • 来自相关话题

William Nail, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Annual Growth Stages

Grapevines are deciduous, woody perennial plants, and their annual cycle is, in many ways, similar to other such plants. There are, however, some differences in managing grapevines cultivated for commercial production. Annual growth of grapevines is frequently described using Eichorn-Lorenz stages.

Dormancy

From leaf fall to the beginning of growth in spring, grapevines are dormant and consist entirely of woody tissue. Relatively little activity occurs during this period. Root growth can still occur unless soil temperatures are too cold to support growth. Cold hardiness within cultivars can vary depending on genetics, temperature, and temperature fluctuations. Many of the hybrid grape varieties are created to address the lack of hardiness in varieties of grapes in the species Vitis vinifera. As a result, hardiness varies considerably across varieties. In cold climates, hardy hybrid varieties are necessary for grape production.

Bud break

As temperatures warm in the spring, stored starch is converted to sugar and sap begins to move in the vine. This can be seen on warm spring days when pruning wounds begin to “bleed". As temperatures warm, buds begin to swell, then burst (break). The newly emerged shoots grow very rapidly, and will continue to do so for several weeks in the absence of stress. Soon clusterinflorescences become visible, usually opposite the third and fourth leaves on a shoot.

Bloom and fruit set

After a few weeks, depending on weather conditions, inflorescences begin to swell, and soon flowers open. The flowering period can be as short as a day or two under warm, dry conditions, or as long as a month under very cool, wet weather conditions. Most commercial grape cultivars are self-pollinating, so do not need a separate pollenizer cultivar. Grapevines are still mostly reliant on stored carbohydrates from the previous season for their energy at this point. After pollination, the flowers abscise and the newly-formed berries go through a rapid period of development due to cell division. Flower cluster primordia for the following season begin to originate in buds at this time, and will continue to develop until veraison. Leaves well exposed to sunlight during this time will result in morefruitful buds in the following growing season. Once the berries are well formed, cell division largely ceases and further berry growth is mostly due to cell expansion. Many leaves on each shoot are fully expanded, and the vine no longer depends on stored carbohydrates for its energy source. For the next few weeks, shoots and berries grow very rapidly.

Veraison and fruit maturation

Approximately five to seven weeks after fruit set, veraison begins. Berries expand further, begin to soften, and accumulate sugar. The color on red cultivars is readily apparent, while the visual indicators of maturity on white cultivars are more subtle. During the next four to six weeks, sugar, pigments, and other flavor compounds increase in the maturing fruit, while organic acids decrease and change forms. Unless there is an excess of water or fertility, shoot growth slows greatly or ceases. The bark of green shoots begins to turn brown from the base, becoming woody by the end of the period. This process is called lignification. On managed plantings, the veraison period ends with harvest.

Post-harvest

After harvest, grapevine leaves continue to photosynthesize until frost if temperatures are warm enough. This is a very important period for the vines to accumulate carbohydrates for future growth. As temperatures fall, vines gradually become more cold hardy, and sugars are converted to starch to be stored for the winter, mostly in perennial structures such as roots and trunks. After leaf fall, vines continue to acclimate to cold weather, but no more carbohydrate accumulation occurs.

Recommended Resources

Eichorn-Lorenz Stages in Shoot Development of the Grapevine

Stages of Grape Berry Development

Mullins, Michael G., Alain Bouquet, and Larry E. Williams. 1992. Biology of the Grapevine.Cambridge University Press, UK.

Growth Stages of Grapevines (diagrams), Canadian Ministry of Agriculture

Reviewed by William Shoemaker, University of Illinois
and Eric Stafne, Mississippi State University
 
reference: http://articles.extension.org/ ... evine 查看全部
William Nail, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Annual Growth Stages

Grapevines are deciduous, woody perennial plants, and their annual cycle is, in many ways, similar to other such plants. There are, however, some differences in managing grapevines cultivated for commercial production. Annual growth of grapevines is frequently described using Eichorn-Lorenz stages.

Dormancy

From leaf fall to the beginning of growth in spring, grapevines are dormant and consist entirely of woody tissue. Relatively little activity occurs during this period. Root growth can still occur unless soil temperatures are too cold to support growth. Cold hardiness within cultivars can vary depending on genetics, temperature, and temperature fluctuations. Many of the hybrid grape varieties are created to address the lack of hardiness in varieties of grapes in the species Vitis vinifera. As a result, hardiness varies considerably across varieties. In cold climates, hardy hybrid varieties are necessary for grape production.

Bud break

As temperatures warm in the spring, stored starch is converted to sugar and sap begins to move in the vine. This can be seen on warm spring days when pruning wounds begin to “bleed". As temperatures warm, buds begin to swell, then burst (break). The newly emerged shoots grow very rapidly, and will continue to do so for several weeks in the absence of stress. Soon clusterinflorescences become visible, usually opposite the third and fourth leaves on a shoot.

Bloom and fruit set

After a few weeks, depending on weather conditions, inflorescences begin to swell, and soon flowers open. The flowering period can be as short as a day or two under warm, dry conditions, or as long as a month under very cool, wet weather conditions. Most commercial grape cultivars are self-pollinating, so do not need a separate pollenizer cultivar. Grapevines are still mostly reliant on stored carbohydrates from the previous season for their energy at this point. After pollination, the flowers abscise and the newly-formed berries go through a rapid period of development due to cell division. Flower cluster primordia for the following season begin to originate in buds at this time, and will continue to develop until veraison. Leaves well exposed to sunlight during this time will result in morefruitful buds in the following growing season. Once the berries are well formed, cell division largely ceases and further berry growth is mostly due to cell expansion. Many leaves on each shoot are fully expanded, and the vine no longer depends on stored carbohydrates for its energy source. For the next few weeks, shoots and berries grow very rapidly.

Veraison and fruit maturation

Approximately five to seven weeks after fruit set, veraison begins. Berries expand further, begin to soften, and accumulate sugar. The color on red cultivars is readily apparent, while the visual indicators of maturity on white cultivars are more subtle. During the next four to six weeks, sugar, pigments, and other flavor compounds increase in the maturing fruit, while organic acids decrease and change forms. Unless there is an excess of water or fertility, shoot growth slows greatly or ceases. The bark of green shoots begins to turn brown from the base, becoming woody by the end of the period. This process is called lignification. On managed plantings, the veraison period ends with harvest.

Post-harvest

After harvest, grapevine leaves continue to photosynthesize until frost if temperatures are warm enough. This is a very important period for the vines to accumulate carbohydrates for future growth. As temperatures fall, vines gradually become more cold hardy, and sugars are converted to starch to be stored for the winter, mostly in perennial structures such as roots and trunks. After leaf fall, vines continue to acclimate to cold weather, but no more carbohydrate accumulation occurs.

Recommended Resources

Eichorn-Lorenz Stages in Shoot Development of the Grapevine

Stages of Grape Berry Development

Mullins, Michael G., Alain Bouquet, and Larry E. Williams. 1992. Biology of the Grapevine.Cambridge University Press, UK.

Growth Stages of Grapevines (diagrams), Canadian Ministry of Agriculture

Reviewed by William Shoemaker, University of Illinois
and Eric Stafne, Mississippi State University
 
reference: http://articles.extension.org/ ... evine

Grapevine Sources and Sinks: Allocation of Photosynthate over the Growing Season

cewh Published the article • 0 comments • 227 views • 2016-06-13 04:57 • 来自相关话题

Tim Martinson, Cornell University

Carbon and sugars produced through photosynthesis, along with minerals from the soil, are allocated from ‘sources’ (active leaves) to ‘sinks’ to support vine growth, fruit development, and maintenance of the vine’s permanent structure (trunks, canes and roots). Where this photosynthate is allocated varies according to the time of the season and needs of the vines. Put another way, the strength of the various sinks to which photosynthates are allocated varies during seasonal vine development. It also is affected by nutrient availability and soil fertility, vine water status, additional stressors such as insects and disease, and crop load – the ratio of fruit to active leaf area. Understanding how allocation of photosynthate shifts over the growing season underpins many of the viticultural practices aimed at influencing vine growth and fruit development.
Dormant to bloom

Early vine growth relies on carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves stored in woody tissues, canes and roots. Starches are mobilized, first from the canes, cordons, and trunk, then from the roots, to the developing shoot tips until mature leaves are capable of becoming net exporters of photosynthate to support further shoot growth and development.
Bloom to fruit set

After flowers are pollinated and begin to set fruit, photosynthate allocation begins to transition from shoot tips to fruit clusters to support fruit growth. In addition, bloom is when the buds for next year’s crop start to form. By this time, reserves are largely depleted, and the vine becomes dependent solely on this year’s canopy to support further canopy development and shoot growth — as well as cluster development. Shoot tips and fruit compete as sinks for photosynthate. As evidence, it’s well known that if shoot tips are removed around bloom, increased allocation of photosynthate to clusters can increase fruit set, as the competing shoot tip sinks are temporarily eliminated.

Early fruit development

By fruit set, berries have already undergone cell division in their ovaries, and have about one-third of their final number of cells. Berries continue their development through cell division, while canopy development and root growth continues.
Lag phase

About a month after bloom, there is a temporary ‘lag’ in berry growth. At this time, cell division in berries is largely complete, and seeds are beginning to form within the ovaries of the berries. After this point, berries continue to grow through cell enlargement, and berries and seeds constitute an increasingly strong sink for photosynthate. Shoot growth should slow dramatically as more of the photosynthate is allocated to developing clusters.
Veraíson and after

Veraíson signals the start of fruit ripening. Fruit composition starts to change. There is a rapid expansion of berry volume and accumulation of soluble solids. Cells, which before veraíson expand through import of water through the xylem, continue expansion with water and solutes imported through the phloem. Acids – largely malate before veraíson — reach their peak at veraíson and get broken down via respiration, simultaneously with increased sugar accumulation. At this point, vines have a full canopy, and the developing and ripening fruit is the overwhelming sink for photosynthate produced by the leaves.
Periderm formation and dormancy

Also after veraíson, shoots begin to turn brown from the base of the shoot outward, as the water-resistant periderm forms. As the leaves start to senesce, carbon and nitrogen from leaves is mobilized out of them to support both fruit development and storage of reserves in canes, trunks and roots of the vine.
Harvest

Once the crop is removed, photosynthate produced by remaining leaves is converted to starches and moved into permanent parts of the vine for storage, which will again support early shoot growth and development during the next growing season.

Consequences for Management

Understanding this seasonal cycle of allocation helps explain seasonal variation in vine growth, the impact of stressors, and the effect of nutrient availability on various processes in the vineyard.
Water relations: Water stress from fruit set through the lag phase can limit cell division, shoot growth, and berry size. For wine grapes (and particularly reds), moderate stress at this time is often viewed as a positive – that limits excess vigor and shading, and facilitates the transition from vegetative growth to fruit development. For red varieties, smaller berries resulting from water stress increase the skin-to-pulp ratio, resulting in wines with deeper color and more concentrated flavors.This 'Pinot Noir' vineyard illustrates effects of excess fertility and undercropping on carbon allocation. Photographed on September 29 in New York, shoot tips are still actively growing, while clusters show evidence of uneven ripening. Note full green "Christmas" clusters that developed on secondary shoots. Photo by Tim Martinson, Cornell University.Excess water and nutrients: In contrast, excess water and nutrient availability (especially N) can delay the transition from vegetative growth to fruit development. Ideally, shoot growth should slow dramatically by about a month after fruit set. If excess water and nitrogen fuel continued shoot growth through and after veraíson, fruit quality suffers, and the transition to dormancy and winter hardiness also will be delayed.Active leaf area after harvest: A fundamental difference between cool and hot climate growing regions is the amount of time that active leaves remain on the vine after harvest. Warm-climate growers almost always have an extended amount of time after harvest with active leaves. In cooler climates, the amount of time that a grapevine canopy remains active after harvest is limited – and sometimes nonexistent. Removing the sink of ripening grape clusters redirects photosynthate towards replenishing vine reserves and supporting acclimation to winter low temperatures. This critical post-harvest time influences how resistant vines are to low winter temperatures and how early-season growth will progress in the following year.Vine balance: Finally, understanding carbon partitioning provides key insights into the concept of vine balance – that is, managing cropping levels and vine growth so that both are in balance with each other. Overcropped vines have more fruit and less leaf area to support development. At best, the finite amount of carbon produced by leaves is divided among too many clusters. At worst, overcropping also results in fewer leaves — and less photosynthate — to support a larger crop. Delayed maturity and unripe fruit can be results of a poorly balanced vine. Undercropped vines allocate too much photosynthate to vegetative growth. Without the sink of developing clusters to slow down shoot growth, canopies become dense and shaded — and often don’t stop growing until late in the season.

Understanding sources and sinks for carbon that leaves produce, and how they vary in time and in response to environment and vine management, is a key to effective vineyard management.
 
 
reference: http://articles.extension.org/ ... eason 查看全部
Tim Martinson, Cornell University

Carbon and sugars produced through photosynthesis, along with minerals from the soil, are allocated from ‘sources’ (active leaves) to ‘sinks’ to support vine growth, fruit development, and maintenance of the vine’s permanent structure (trunks, canes and roots). Where this photosynthate is allocated varies according to the time of the season and needs of the vines. Put another way, the strength of the various sinks to which photosynthates are allocated varies during seasonal vine development. It also is affected by nutrient availability and soil fertility, vine water status, additional stressors such as insects and disease, and crop load – the ratio of fruit to active leaf area. Understanding how allocation of photosynthate shifts over the growing season underpins many of the viticultural practices aimed at influencing vine growth and fruit development.
  • Dormant to bloom


Early vine growth relies on carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves stored in woody tissues, canes and roots. Starches are mobilized, first from the canes, cordons, and trunk, then from the roots, to the developing shoot tips until mature leaves are capable of becoming net exporters of photosynthate to support further shoot growth and development.
  • Bloom to fruit set


After flowers are pollinated and begin to set fruit, photosynthate allocation begins to transition from shoot tips to fruit clusters to support fruit growth. In addition, bloom is when the buds for next year’s crop start to form. By this time, reserves are largely depleted, and the vine becomes dependent solely on this year’s canopy to support further canopy development and shoot growth — as well as cluster development. Shoot tips and fruit compete as sinks for photosynthate. As evidence, it’s well known that if shoot tips are removed around bloom, increased allocation of photosynthate to clusters can increase fruit set, as the competing shoot tip sinks are temporarily eliminated.

Early fruit development

By fruit set, berries have already undergone cell division in their ovaries, and have about one-third of their final number of cells. Berries continue their development through cell division, while canopy development and root growth continues.
  • Lag phase


About a month after bloom, there is a temporary ‘lag’ in berry growth. At this time, cell division in berries is largely complete, and seeds are beginning to form within the ovaries of the berries. After this point, berries continue to grow through cell enlargement, and berries and seeds constitute an increasingly strong sink for photosynthate. Shoot growth should slow dramatically as more of the photosynthate is allocated to developing clusters.
  • Veraíson and after


Veraíson signals the start of fruit ripening. Fruit composition starts to change. There is a rapid expansion of berry volume and accumulation of soluble solids. Cells, which before veraíson expand through import of water through the xylem, continue expansion with water and solutes imported through the phloem. Acids – largely malate before veraíson — reach their peak at veraíson and get broken down via respiration, simultaneously with increased sugar accumulation. At this point, vines have a full canopy, and the developing and ripening fruit is the overwhelming sink for photosynthate produced by the leaves.
  • Periderm formation and dormancy


Also after veraíson, shoots begin to turn brown from the base of the shoot outward, as the water-resistant periderm forms. As the leaves start to senesce, carbon and nitrogen from leaves is mobilized out of them to support both fruit development and storage of reserves in canes, trunks and roots of the vine.
  • Harvest


Once the crop is removed, photosynthate produced by remaining leaves is converted to starches and moved into permanent parts of the vine for storage, which will again support early shoot growth and development during the next growing season.

Consequences for Management

Understanding this seasonal cycle of allocation helps explain seasonal variation in vine growth, the impact of stressors, and the effect of nutrient availability on various processes in the vineyard.
  • Water relations: Water stress from fruit set through the lag phase can limit cell division, shoot growth, and berry size. For wine grapes (and particularly reds), moderate stress at this time is often viewed as a positive – that limits excess vigor and shading, and facilitates the transition from vegetative growth to fruit development. For red varieties, smaller berries resulting from water stress increase the skin-to-pulp ratio, resulting in wines with deeper color and more concentrated flavors.This 'Pinot Noir' vineyard illustrates effects of excess fertility and undercropping on carbon allocation. Photographed on September 29 in New York, shoot tips are still actively growing, while clusters show evidence of uneven ripening. Note full green "Christmas" clusters that developed on secondary shoots. Photo by Tim Martinson, Cornell University.Excess water and nutrients: In contrast, excess water and nutrient availability (especially N) can delay the transition from vegetative growth to fruit development. Ideally, shoot growth should slow dramatically by about a month after fruit set. If excess water and nitrogen fuel continued shoot growth through and after veraíson, fruit quality suffers, and the transition to dormancy and winter hardiness also will be delayed.
  • Active leaf area after harvest: A fundamental difference between cool and hot climate growing regions is the amount of time that active leaves remain on the vine after harvest. Warm-climate growers almost always have an extended amount of time after harvest with active leaves. In cooler climates, the amount of time that a grapevine canopy remains active after harvest is limited – and sometimes nonexistent. Removing the sink of ripening grape clusters redirects photosynthate towards replenishing vine reserves and supporting acclimation to winter low temperatures. This critical post-harvest time influences how resistant vines are to low winter temperatures and how early-season growth will progress in the following year.
  • Vine balance: Finally, understanding carbon partitioning provides key insights into the concept of vine balance – that is, managing cropping levels and vine growth so that both are in balance with each other. Overcropped vines have more fruit and less leaf area to support development. At best, the finite amount of carbon produced by leaves is divided among too many clusters. At worst, overcropping also results in fewer leaves — and less photosynthate — to support a larger crop. Delayed maturity and unripe fruit can be results of a poorly balanced vine. Undercropped vines allocate too much photosynthate to vegetative growth. Without the sink of developing clusters to slow down shoot growth, canopies become dense and shaded — and often don’t stop growing until late in the season.


Understanding sources and sinks for carbon that leaves produce, and how they vary in time and in response to environment and vine management, is a key to effective vineyard management.
 
 
reference: http://articles.extension.org/ ... eason

La Crescent: A Winemaker’s Grape

cewh Published the article • 0 comments • 190 views • 2016-06-04 19:48 • 来自相关话题

May 12, 2013 by Katie Cook
 
The first time I had a glass of wine made from La Crescent, I was completely blown away.

Reminiscent of an aromatic white that might come from Germany or Austria, my mind started spinning with all the potential this grape has for winemakers in Minnesota. The high acidity makes it relatively versatile for various winemaking styles from dry to sweet or even fortified dessert wines, while the tropical fruit and floral aroma make it an easy sell to consumers.[John Thull, vineyard manager and Katie Cook, enology project leader, The University of Minnesota]John Thull, vineyard manager, and Katie Cook, enology project leader, The University of Minnesota

The La Crescent grape originated from a cross between St. Pepin and ES 6-8-25, both selections from the breeding program of Elmer Swenson. It has a complex lineage in which the French hybrid ‘Seyval Blanc’ and V. vinifera ‘Muscat Hamburg’ play a role. Its aromatic profile leans towards muscat, but I’ve also encountered examples that are so fruit-forward that the aroma is reminiscent of the children’s cereal with a toucan on the label.

Surprisingly, an example I had from Iowa so resembled an herbaceous Sauvignon Blanc, that I had a hard time believing that it was a 100% varietal wine (it was fermented using a thiol-producing yeast).

There is, however, a dark side to such a seemingly perfect cold-hardy wine grape. The vine itself isn’t always pretty to look at – its procumbent growth habit making it look as though it is always weeping, and the leaves and fruit can show some disease.

It has moderate resistance to powdery mildew and black rot, but it is susceptible to downy mildew and foliar phylloxera. It’s not a vine for growers who plan to be weekend warriors, as anti-fungal sprays need to be well-timed with bud-break, bloom, and high disease situations (rainfall and humidity) throughout the spring.

The high-vigor canopy also needs to be managed throughout the growing season to allow for good air-circulation. It’s a vine that will punish growers who don’t use good practices. In addition, poor fruit set and late season berry shelling can be troublesome in certain vintages or on particular vineyard sites (though the exact cause is unknown).

The viticultural challenges of La Crescent have unfortunately caused some growers to give up on this variety entirely. I say “unfortunately” because even though I’ve outlined some scary prospects, these aren’t unmanageable problems. Botrytis and berry splitting are non-existent, and own-rooted vines are long-lived.[The La Crescent Grape, developed at the University of Minnesota]The La Crescent Grape, developed at the University of Minnesota

Although La Crescent is a difficult cold-hardy vine when compared to say, Frontenac, in the wide world of viticulture, it is still relatively easy to manage. It is also extremely cold-hardy – tolerating temperatures as cold as -36°F (-38°C) in early February with only minor bud loss. This characteristic, along with the quality of the fruit, means that it is definitely a grape that northern growers should not turn away. It is truly a winemaker’s grape, but one that growers shouldn’t give up on for all its difficulties.

To this day, whenever I’m introducing someone to Minnesota wines, the first wine I tend to start with is one made from La Crescent. Even though Marquette is getting lots of hype, its lack of tannins and its high relative acidity for a red grape still cause wine drinkers to find it “unusual” if they are accustomed to drinking Malbec or Cabernet Sauvignon.

However, La Crescent, when done well, can easily be confused for a Moscato or perhaps a Grüner-Veltiner wine. It’s floral, fruit-forward, and citrusy. Served chilled it’s a perfect wine to serve in the summertime. It also tends to be made in somewhat of an off-dry style rather than bone dry, which is an approachable style to many.

The sugar and acid levels tend to be relatively high when compared to V. vinifera grapes. Sugar levels at harvest average around 25° brix, while acid levels average about 12 g/L, thus the wine is very well-suited towards an off-dry to sweet wine. Because late-season berry shelling can be an issue, making a late-harvest or ice wine comes with risks. Nonetheless, winemakers utilizing cryo-extraction methods or drying the grapes to further concentrate the sugars have been awarded with high-quality, award winning dessert wines. I dare anyone to pick up a bottle and see if they aren’t smitten by its charms.

For more information: http://grapes.umn.edu/LaCrescent/

Katie Cook is the enology project leader at the University of Minnesota and the author of the University of Minnesota Enology Blog 
 
reference: http://midwestwinepress.com/20 ... rape/ 查看全部
May 12, 2013 by Katie Cook
 
The first time I had a glass of wine made from La Crescent, I was completely blown away.

Reminiscent of an aromatic white that might come from Germany or Austria, my mind started spinning with all the potential this grape has for winemakers in Minnesota. The high acidity makes it relatively versatile for various winemaking styles from dry to sweet or even fortified dessert wines, while the tropical fruit and floral aroma make it an easy sell to consumers.[John Thull, vineyard manager and Katie Cook, enology project leader, The University of Minnesota]John Thull, vineyard manager, and Katie Cook, enology project leader, The University of Minnesota

The La Crescent grape originated from a cross between St. Pepin and ES 6-8-25, both selections from the breeding program of Elmer Swenson. It has a complex lineage in which the French hybrid ‘Seyval Blanc’ and V. vinifera ‘Muscat Hamburg’ play a role. Its aromatic profile leans towards muscat, but I’ve also encountered examples that are so fruit-forward that the aroma is reminiscent of the children’s cereal with a toucan on the label.

Surprisingly, an example I had from Iowa so resembled an herbaceous Sauvignon Blanc, that I had a hard time believing that it was a 100% varietal wine (it was fermented using a thiol-producing yeast).

There is, however, a dark side to such a seemingly perfect cold-hardy wine grape. The vine itself isn’t always pretty to look at – its procumbent growth habit making it look as though it is always weeping, and the leaves and fruit can show some disease.

It has moderate resistance to powdery mildew and black rot, but it is susceptible to downy mildew and foliar phylloxera. It’s not a vine for growers who plan to be weekend warriors, as anti-fungal sprays need to be well-timed with bud-break, bloom, and high disease situations (rainfall and humidity) throughout the spring.

The high-vigor canopy also needs to be managed throughout the growing season to allow for good air-circulation. It’s a vine that will punish growers who don’t use good practices. In addition, poor fruit set and late season berry shelling can be troublesome in certain vintages or on particular vineyard sites (though the exact cause is unknown).

The viticultural challenges of La Crescent have unfortunately caused some growers to give up on this variety entirely. I say “unfortunately” because even though I’ve outlined some scary prospects, these aren’t unmanageable problems. Botrytis and berry splitting are non-existent, and own-rooted vines are long-lived.[The La Crescent Grape, developed at the University of Minnesota]The La Crescent Grape, developed at the University of Minnesota

Although La Crescent is a difficult cold-hardy vine when compared to say, Frontenac, in the wide world of viticulture, it is still relatively easy to manage. It is also extremely cold-hardy – tolerating temperatures as cold as -36°F (-38°C) in early February with only minor bud loss. This characteristic, along with the quality of the fruit, means that it is definitely a grape that northern growers should not turn away. It is truly a winemaker’s grape, but one that growers shouldn’t give up on for all its difficulties.

To this day, whenever I’m introducing someone to Minnesota wines, the first wine I tend to start with is one made from La Crescent. Even though Marquette is getting lots of hype, its lack of tannins and its high relative acidity for a red grape still cause wine drinkers to find it “unusual” if they are accustomed to drinking Malbec or Cabernet Sauvignon.

However, La Crescent, when done well, can easily be confused for a Moscato or perhaps a Grüner-Veltiner wine. It’s floral, fruit-forward, and citrusy. Served chilled it’s a perfect wine to serve in the summertime. It also tends to be made in somewhat of an off-dry style rather than bone dry, which is an approachable style to many.

The sugar and acid levels tend to be relatively high when compared to V. vinifera grapes. Sugar levels at harvest average around 25° brix, while acid levels average about 12 g/L, thus the wine is very well-suited towards an off-dry to sweet wine. Because late-season berry shelling can be an issue, making a late-harvest or ice wine comes with risks. Nonetheless, winemakers utilizing cryo-extraction methods or drying the grapes to further concentrate the sugars have been awarded with high-quality, award winning dessert wines. I dare anyone to pick up a bottle and see if they aren’t smitten by its charms.

For more information: http://grapes.umn.edu/LaCrescent/

Katie Cook is the enology project leader at the University of Minnesota and the author of the University of Minnesota Enology Blog 
 
reference: http://midwestwinepress.com/20 ... rape/

Wine is Not Made in the Vineyard

cewh Published the article • 0 comments • 176 views • 2016-05-17 21:37 • 来自相关话题

By Rebecca Gibb | Posted Saturday, 22-Mar-2014
 This semester, the compulsory paper for all oenology students is “Winemaking Patter”. In order to graduate, all students must learn phrases that they will regale to winery visitors in the future.

The syllabus will cover phrases such as “overdelivering on quality" or "an obsessive commitment to quality", “hang time” and the current must-have expression: “Wine is made in the vineyard.”

Of course, the latter phrase should not be taken literally. Have you not learned anything in the last three years of study? We all need that reverse osmosis machine in a bad vintage – sorry, a “winemaker’s vintage.”

Admittedly this module in a winemaking degree is fictitious but one too many utterances of  “wine is made in the vineyard” from the owner of a Bordeaux classified growth inspired this column.

It seems that almost every classified growth in Bordeaux is currently pouring millions upon millions of dollars into new wineries. Some of Bordeaux’s most expensive winery projects in recent years include the 20m euros ($26.5m) renovation at Château Montrose. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande spent 16m euros ($21.2m), Pavie invested 14m euros ($18.6m), and Mouton Rothschild has dropped 13m euros ($17.3m) on its cellars. Ask them where their wine is made and I would wager that their response would be: "in the vineyard."

It's the same in many of the world's top wine regions: producers are buying optical sorters and amphorae and ordering custom-toasted wine barrels. But their wine "is made in the vineyard".

The phrase is not meant literally but implies that you can’t make great wine if the raw material isn’t up to scratch. This is certainly true and in the past two decades wineries have been putting a huge amount of effort into their vineyards in a bid to improve their fruit quality, trialling new methods from green harvesting to fancy irrigation systems.

The efforts have been worthwhile: wine drinkers have never had it so good, as Mike Steinberger pointed out in his last column. The vineyard is key to making great grapes and without great fruit, great wine cannot be made. However, even great grapes still have to be made into great wine – in the winery! And there is plenty of room for error from the grapes reaching the reception area to the bottling line. 

Yet winemakers from all four corners of the globe are telling us wine is made in the vineyard, and repeating the same lines over and over again.[Alexandre Thienpont's a keen cyclist and glider; meet Jordan's donkey Maverick]
© Philippe Roy/Rebecca Gibb | Alexandre Thienpont's a keen cyclist and glider; meet Jordan's donkey MaverickSo, here's an idea: instead of telling us the same thing that the guy from Bordeaux said and spouting the same line as the lady from Napa, or putting us to sleep with hectares, varietal mix and rootstocks, tell us your story – unless you spot trains or collect stamps. In that case, stick to the rootstocks.

Every story is unique: the story of the people, their family and their exploits makes a winery stand apart from the crowd – not forgetting the wine.

For example, I have no idea how many acres of Cabernet Sauvignon are planted at Chilean winery Montes. But I do remember Aurelio Montes Jr. likes to jump out of planes.

I have forgotten the proportion of new oak in Vieux Château Certan's wines. But I can tell you that owner Alexandre Thienpont cycled from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean for his 50th birthday "treat” and his grandfather was also a fan of pedal power, cycling from Belgium to Pomerol just to check on his vines during German occupation.

Or how about the tale of Pichon Baron’s harvest team? In 1987, a circus crew arrived with their caravans and animals in tow, including a llama, to pick the grapes. Now that's worth remembering.

And while I'm on a storytelling roll, Jordan Winery in Sonoma adopted two donkeys last year: Maverick and Goose. The Top Gun-inspired names are a nod to owner John Jordan's piloting skills.

Without these stories, we're swimming in a vat of information that is often read and quickly forgotten. Swedish researchers have found that our ‘working memory’ has become overloaded with all the information we are receiving from the Internet on a daily basis and that our short-term memory is deteriorating, as a result of the wealth of information at our fingertips. However, if something entertained or inspired you, it’s more likely that you’ll retain it. It’s unlikely your rootstock selection will be on the retention list.

Producers are not the only ones who must remember to tell their story and tell it well. The wine media also has an important role to play: journalists should draw out unique and interesting personal stories from producers and write compelling copy. However, writers that pack an article with more facts than you can shake a stick at are courting with information overload. I’d rather have a good read – an article that you can actually finish without needing a stiff drink.

Whether you are a producer, a retailer or a writer, we should all be telling more of these compelling stories because "making wine in the vineyard" is not original and literally, it isn't true.
 
retrieved from http://www.wine-searcher.com/m ... eyard 查看全部
By Rebecca Gibb | Posted Saturday, 22-Mar-2014
 This semester, the compulsory paper for all oenology students is “Winemaking Patter”. In order to graduate, all students must learn phrases that they will regale to winery visitors in the future.

The syllabus will cover phrases such as “overdelivering on quality" or "an obsessive commitment to quality", “hang time” and the current must-have expression: “Wine is made in the vineyard.”

Of course, the latter phrase should not be taken literally. Have you not learned anything in the last three years of study? We all need that reverse osmosis machine in a bad vintage – sorry, a “winemaker’s vintage.”

Admittedly this module in a winemaking degree is fictitious but one too many utterances of  “wine is made in the vineyard” from the owner of a Bordeaux classified growth inspired this column.

It seems that almost every classified growth in Bordeaux is currently pouring millions upon millions of dollars into new wineries. Some of Bordeaux’s most expensive winery projects in recent years include the 20m euros ($26.5m) renovation at Château Montrose. Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande spent 16m euros ($21.2m), Pavie invested 14m euros ($18.6m), and Mouton Rothschild has dropped 13m euros ($17.3m) on its cellars. Ask them where their wine is made and I would wager that their response would be: "in the vineyard."

It's the same in many of the world's top wine regions: producers are buying optical sorters and amphorae and ordering custom-toasted wine barrels. But their wine "is made in the vineyard".

The phrase is not meant literally but implies that you can’t make great wine if the raw material isn’t up to scratch. This is certainly true and in the past two decades wineries have been putting a huge amount of effort into their vineyards in a bid to improve their fruit quality, trialling new methods from green harvesting to fancy irrigation systems.

The efforts have been worthwhile: wine drinkers have never had it so good, as Mike Steinberger pointed out in his last column. The vineyard is key to making great grapes and without great fruit, great wine cannot be made. However, even great grapes still have to be made into great wine – in the winery! And there is plenty of room for error from the grapes reaching the reception area to the bottling line. 

Yet winemakers from all four corners of the globe are telling us wine is made in the vineyard, and repeating the same lines over and over again.[Alexandre Thienpont's a keen cyclist and glider; meet Jordan's donkey Maverick]
© Philippe Roy/Rebecca Gibb | Alexandre Thienpont's a keen cyclist and glider; meet Jordan's donkey MaverickSo, here's an idea: instead of telling us the same thing that the guy from Bordeaux said and spouting the same line as the lady from Napa, or putting us to sleep with hectares, varietal mix and rootstocks, tell us your story – unless you spot trains or collect stamps. In that case, stick to the rootstocks.

Every story is unique: the story of the people, their family and their exploits makes a winery stand apart from the crowd – not forgetting the wine.

For example, I have no idea how many acres of Cabernet Sauvignon are planted at Chilean winery Montes. But I do remember Aurelio Montes Jr. likes to jump out of planes.

I have forgotten the proportion of new oak in Vieux Château Certan's wines. But I can tell you that owner Alexandre Thienpont cycled from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean for his 50th birthday "treat” and his grandfather was also a fan of pedal power, cycling from Belgium to Pomerol just to check on his vines during German occupation.

Or how about the tale of Pichon Baron’s harvest team? In 1987, a circus crew arrived with their caravans and animals in tow, including a llama, to pick the grapes. Now that's worth remembering.

And while I'm on a storytelling roll, Jordan Winery in Sonoma adopted two donkeys last year: Maverick and Goose. The Top Gun-inspired names are a nod to owner John Jordan's piloting skills.

Without these stories, we're swimming in a vat of information that is often read and quickly forgotten. Swedish researchers have found that our ‘working memory’ has become overloaded with all the information we are receiving from the Internet on a daily basis and that our short-term memory is deteriorating, as a result of the wealth of information at our fingertips. However, if something entertained or inspired you, it’s more likely that you’ll retain it. It’s unlikely your rootstock selection will be on the retention list.

Producers are not the only ones who must remember to tell their story and tell it well. The wine media also has an important role to play: journalists should draw out unique and interesting personal stories from producers and write compelling copy. However, writers that pack an article with more facts than you can shake a stick at are courting with information overload. I’d rather have a good read – an article that you can actually finish without needing a stiff drink.

Whether you are a producer, a retailer or a writer, we should all be telling more of these compelling stories because "making wine in the vineyard" is not original and literally, it isn't true.
 
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